http.cookiejar — 用于 HTTP 客户端的 Cookie 处理

源代码: Lib/http/cookiejar.py


http.cookiejar module defines classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies. It is useful for accessing web sites that require small pieces of data – Cookie – to be set on the client machine by an HTTP response from a web server, and then returned to the server in later HTTP requests.

Both the regular Netscape cookie protocol and the protocol defined by RFC 2965 are handled. RFC 2965 handling is switched off by default. RFC 2109 cookies are parsed as Netscape cookies and subsequently treated either as Netscape or RFC 2965 cookies according to the ‘policy’ in effect. Note that the great majority of cookies on the Internet are Netscape cookies. http.cookiejar attempts to follow the de-facto Netscape cookie protocol (which differs substantially from that set out in the original Netscape specification), including taking note of the max-age and port cookie-attributes introduced with RFC 2965.

注意

The various named parameters found in Set-Cookie and Set-Cookie2 headers (eg. domain and expires ) are conventionally referred to as attributes . To distinguish them from Python attributes, the documentation for this module uses the term cookie-attribute 代替。

模块定义以下异常:

exception http.cookiejar. LoadError

实例化的 FileCookieJar raise this exception on failure to load cookies from a file. LoadError 是子类对于 OSError .

3.3 版改变: LoadError 是子类化的 OSError 而不是 IOError .

提供了下列类:

class http.cookiejar. CookieJar ( policy=None )

policy 是对象实现 CookiePolicy 接口。

CookieJar class stores HTTP cookies. It extracts cookies from HTTP requests, and returns them in HTTP responses. CookieJar instances automatically expire contained cookies when necessary. Subclasses are also responsible for storing and retrieving cookies from a file or database.

class http.cookiejar. FileCookieJar ( filename , delayload=None , policy=None )

policy 是对象实现 CookiePolicy interface. For the other arguments, see the documentation for the corresponding attributes.

A CookieJar which can load cookies from, and perhaps save cookies to, a file on disk. Cookies are NOT loaded from the named file until either the load() or revert() method is called. Subclasses of this class are documented in section FileCookieJar 子类和与 Web 浏览器合作 .

3.8 版改变: 文件名参数支持 像路径对象 .

class http.cookiejar. CookiePolicy

This class is responsible for deciding whether each cookie should be accepted from / returned to the server.

class http.cookiejar. DefaultCookiePolicy ( blocked_domains=None , allowed_domains=None , netscape=True , rfc2965=False , rfc2109_as_netscape=None , hide_cookie2=False , strict_domain=False , strict_rfc2965_unverifiable=True , strict_ns_unverifiable=False , strict_ns_domain=DefaultCookiePolicy.DomainLiberal , strict_ns_set_initial_dollar=False , strict_ns_set_path=False , secure_protocols=("https" , "wss") )

Constructor arguments should be passed as keyword arguments only. blocked_domains is a sequence of domain names that we never accept cookies from, nor return cookies to. allowed_domains if not None , this is a sequence of the only domains for which we accept and return cookies. secure_protocols is a sequence of protocols for which secure cookies can be added to. By default https and wss (secure websocket) are considered secure protocols. For all other arguments, see the documentation for CookiePolicy and DefaultCookiePolicy 对象。

DefaultCookiePolicy implements the standard accept / reject rules for Netscape and RFC 2965 cookies. By default, RFC 2109 cookies (ie. cookies received in a Set-Cookie header with a version cookie-attribute of 1) are treated according to the RFC 2965 rules. However, if RFC 2965 handling is turned off or rfc2109_as_netscape is True , RFC 2109 cookies are ‘downgraded’ by the CookieJar instance to Netscape cookies, by setting the version 属性在 Cookie instance to 0. DefaultCookiePolicy also provides some parameters to allow some fine-tuning of policy.

class http.cookiejar. Cookie

此类表示 Netscape, RFC 2109 and RFC 2965 cookies. It is not expected that users of http.cookiejar construct their own Cookie instances. Instead, if necessary, call make_cookies() CookieJar 实例。

另请参阅

模块 urllib.request

采用自动 Cookie 处理打开 URL。

模块 http.cookies

HTTP cookie classes, principally useful for server-side code. The http.cookiejar and http.cookies 模块不相互依赖。

https://curl.haxx.se/rfc/cookie_spec.html

The specification of the original Netscape cookie protocol. Though this is still the dominant protocol, the ‘Netscape cookie protocol’ implemented by all the major browsers (and http.cookiejar ) only bears a passing resemblance to the one sketched out in cookie_spec.html .

RFC 2109 - HTTP 状态管理机制

Obsoleted by RFC 2965 . Uses Set-Cookie with version=1.

RFC 2965 - HTTP 状态管理机制

The Netscape protocol with the bugs fixed. Uses Set-Cookie2 in place of Set-Cookie . Not widely used.

http://kristol.org/cookie/errata.html

Unfinished errata to RFC 2965 .

RFC 2964 - Use of HTTP State Management

CookieJar 和 FileCookieJar 对象

CookieJar objects support the iterator protocol for iterating over contained Cookie 对象。

CookieJar 拥有下列方法:

添加正确 Cookie header to request .

若策略允许 (即 rfc2965 and hide_cookie2 attributes of the CookieJar ’s CookiePolicy instance are true and false respectively), the Cookie2 header is also added when appropriate.

request 对象 (通常 urllib.request.Request instance) must support the methods get_full_url() , get_host() , get_type() , unverifiable() , has_header() , get_header() , header_items() , add_unredirected_header() and origin_req_host attribute as documented by urllib.request .

3.3 版改变: request 对象需要 origin_req_host attribute. Dependency on a deprecated method get_origin_req_host() 已被移除。

CookieJar. extract_cookies ( response , request )

提取 Cookie 从 HTTP response and store them in the CookieJar , where allowed by policy.

CookieJar will look for allowable Set-Cookie and Set-Cookie2 headers in the response argument, and store cookies as appropriate (subject to the CookiePolicy.set_ok() method’s approval).

response object (usually the result of a call to urllib.request.urlopen() , or similar) should support an info() method, which returns an email.message.Message 实例。

request 对象 (通常 urllib.request.Request instance) must support the methods get_full_url() , get_host() , unverifiable() ,和 origin_req_host attribute, as documented by urllib.request . The request is used to set default values for cookie-attributes as well as for checking that the cookie is allowed to be set.

3.3 版改变: request 对象需要 origin_req_host attribute. Dependency on a deprecated method get_origin_req_host() 已被移除。

CookieJar. set_policy ( policy )

设置 CookiePolicy 要使用的实例。

CookieJar. make_cookies ( response , request )

Return sequence of Cookie objects extracted from response 对象。

See the documentation for extract_cookies() for the interfaces required of the response and request 自变量。

设置 Cookie if policy says it’s OK to do so.

设置 Cookie , without checking with policy to see whether or not it should be set.

CookieJar. clear ( [ domain [ , path [ , name ] ] ] )

清零某些 Cookie。

If invoked without arguments, clear all cookies. If given a single argument, only cookies belonging to that domain will be removed. If given two arguments, cookies belonging to the specified domain and URL path are removed. If given three arguments, then the cookie with the specified domain , path and name is removed.

引发 KeyError if no matching cookie exists.

CookieJar. clear_session_cookies ( )

Discard all session cookies.

Discards all contained cookies that have a true discard attribute (usually because they had either no max-age or expires cookie-attribute, or an explicit discard cookie-attribute). For interactive browsers, the end of a session usually corresponds to closing the browser window.

注意, save() method won’t save session cookies anyway, unless you ask otherwise by passing a true ignore_discard 自变量。

FileCookieJar 实现下列额外方法:

FileCookieJar. save ( filename=None , ignore_discard=False , ignore_expires=False )

Save cookies to a file.

This base class raises NotImplementedError . Subclasses may leave this method unimplemented.

filename is the name of file in which to save cookies. If filename 未指定, self.filename is used (whose default is the value passed to the constructor, if any); if self.filename is None , ValueError 被引发。

ignore_discard : save even cookies set to be discarded. ignore_expires : save even cookies that have expired

The file is overwritten if it already exists, thus wiping all the cookies it contains. Saved cookies can be restored later using the load() or revert() 方法。

FileCookieJar. load ( filename=None , ignore_discard=False , ignore_expires=False )

加载 Cookie 从文件。

Old cookies are kept unless overwritten by newly loaded ones.

Arguments are as for save() .

The named file must be in the format understood by the class, or LoadError will be raised. Also, OSError may be raised, for example if the file does not exist.

3.3 版改变: IOError 用于被引发,它现在是别名化的 OSError .

FileCookieJar. revert ( filename=None , ignore_discard=False , ignore_expires=False )

Clear all cookies and reload cookies from a saved file.

revert() can raise the same exceptions as load() . If there is a failure, the object’s state will not be altered.

FileCookieJar 实例拥有下列公共属性:

FileCookieJar. filename

Filename of default file in which to keep cookies. This attribute may be assigned to.

FileCookieJar. delayload

If true, load cookies lazily from disk. This attribute should not be assigned to. This is only a hint, since this only affects performance, not behaviour (unless the cookies on disk are changing). A CookieJar object may ignore it. None of the FileCookieJar classes included in the standard library lazily loads cookies.

FileCookieJar 子类和与 Web 浏览器合作

下列 CookieJar 子类的提供为读写。

class http.cookiejar. MozillaCookieJar ( filename , delayload=None , policy=None )

A FileCookieJar that can load from and save cookies to disk in the Mozilla cookies.txt file format (which is also used by the Lynx and Netscape browsers).

注意

This loses information about RFC 2965 cookies, and also about newer or non-standard cookie-attributes such as port .

警告

Back up your cookies before saving if you have cookies whose loss / corruption would be inconvenient (there are some subtleties which may lead to slight changes in the file over a load / save round-trip).

Also note that cookies saved while Mozilla is running will get clobbered by Mozilla.

class http.cookiejar. LWPCookieJar ( filename , delayload=None , policy=None )

A FileCookieJar that can load from and save cookies to disk in format compatible with the libwww-perl library’s Set-Cookie3 file format. This is convenient if you want to store cookies in a human-readable file.

3.8 版改变: 文件名参数支持 像路径对象 .

CookiePolicy 对象

对象实现 CookiePolicy 接口拥有下列方法:

CookiePolicy. set_ok ( cookie , request )

Return boolean value indicating whether cookie should be accepted from server.

cookie Cookie 实例。 request is an object implementing the interface defined by the documentation for CookieJar.extract_cookies() .

CookiePolicy. return_ok ( cookie , request )

Return boolean value indicating whether cookie should be returned to server.

cookie Cookie 实例。 request is an object implementing the interface defined by the documentation for CookieJar.add_cookie_header() .

CookiePolicy. domain_return_ok ( domain , request )

返回 False if cookies should not be returned, given cookie domain.

This method is an optimization. It removes the need for checking every cookie with a particular domain (which might involve reading many files). Returning true from domain_return_ok() and path_return_ok() leaves all the work to return_ok() .

domain_return_ok() returns true for the cookie domain, path_return_ok() is called for the cookie path. Otherwise, path_return_ok() and return_ok() are never called for that cookie domain. If path_return_ok() 返回 True, return_ok() is called with the Cookie object itself for a full check. Otherwise, return_ok() is never called for that cookie path.

注意, domain_return_ok() is called for every cookie domain, not just for the request domain. For example, the function might be called with both ".example.com" and "www.example.com" if the request domain is "www.example.com" . The same goes for path_return_ok() .

request argument is as documented for return_ok() .

CookiePolicy. path_return_ok ( path , request )

返回 False if cookies should not be returned, given cookie path.

See the documentation for domain_return_ok() .

In addition to implementing the methods above, implementations of the CookiePolicy interface must also supply the following attributes, indicating which protocols should be used, and how. All of these attributes may be assigned to.

CookiePolicy. netscape

实现 Netscape 协议。

CookiePolicy. rfc2965

实现 RFC 2965 协议。

CookiePolicy. hide_cookie2

Don’t add Cookie2 header to requests (the presence of this header indicates to the server that we understand RFC 2965 cookies).

The most useful way to define a CookiePolicy class is by subclassing from DefaultCookiePolicy and overriding some or all of the methods above. CookiePolicy itself may be used as a ‘null policy’ to allow setting and receiving any and all cookies (this is unlikely to be useful).

DefaultCookiePolicy 对象

Implements the standard rules for accepting and returning cookies.

Both RFC 2965 and Netscape cookies are covered. RFC 2965 handling is switched off by default.

The easiest way to provide your own policy is to override this class and call its methods in your overridden implementations before adding your own additional checks:

import http.cookiejar
class MyCookiePolicy(http.cookiejar.DefaultCookiePolicy):
    def set_ok(self, cookie, request):
        if not http.cookiejar.DefaultCookiePolicy.set_ok(self, cookie, request):
            return False
        if i_dont_want_to_store_this_cookie(cookie):
            return False
        return True
								

In addition to the features required to implement the CookiePolicy interface, this class allows you to block and allow domains from setting and receiving cookies. There are also some strictness switches that allow you to tighten up the rather loose Netscape protocol rules a little bit (at the cost of blocking some benign cookies).

A domain blacklist and whitelist is provided (both off by default). Only domains not in the blacklist and present in the whitelist (if the whitelist is active) participate in cookie setting and returning. Use the blocked_domains constructor argument, and blocked_domains() and set_blocked_domains() methods (and the corresponding argument and methods for allowed_domains ). If you set a whitelist, you can turn it off again by setting it to None .

Domains in block or allow lists that do not start with a dot must equal the cookie domain to be matched. For example, "example.com" matches a blacklist entry of "example.com" ,但 "www.example.com" does not. Domains that do start with a dot are matched by more specific domains too. For example, both "www.example.com" and "www.coyote.example.com" match ".example.com" (但 "example.com" itself does not). IP addresses are an exception, and must match exactly. For example, if blocked_domains contains "192.168.1.2" and ".168.1.2" , 192.168.1.2 is blocked, but 193.168.1.2 is not.

DefaultCookiePolicy 实现下列额外方法:

DefaultCookiePolicy. blocked_domains ( )

Return the sequence of blocked domains (as a tuple).

DefaultCookiePolicy. set_blocked_domains ( blocked_domains )

Set the sequence of blocked domains.

DefaultCookiePolicy. is_blocked ( domain )

Return whether domain is on the blacklist for setting or receiving cookies.

DefaultCookiePolicy. allowed_domains ( )

返回 None , or the sequence of allowed domains (as a tuple).

DefaultCookiePolicy. set_allowed_domains ( allowed_domains )

Set the sequence of allowed domains, or None .

DefaultCookiePolicy. is_not_allowed ( domain )

Return whether domain is not on the whitelist for setting or receiving cookies.

DefaultCookiePolicy instances have the following attributes, which are all initialised from the constructor arguments of the same name, and which may all be assigned to.

DefaultCookiePolicy. rfc2109_as_netscape

若 true,请求 CookieJar 实例降级 RFC 2109 cookies (ie. cookies received in a Set-Cookie header with a version cookie-attribute of 1) to Netscape cookies by setting the version attribute of the Cookie instance to 0. The default value is None , in which case RFC 2109 cookies are downgraded if and only if RFC 2965 handling is turned off. Therefore, RFC 2109 cookies are downgraded by default.

一般严格开关:

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_domain

Don’t allow sites to set two-component domains with country-code top-level domains like .co.uk , .gov.uk , .co.nz .etc. This is far from perfect and isn’t guaranteed to work!

RFC 2965 protocol strictness switches:

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_rfc2965_unverifiable

Follow RFC 2965 rules on unverifiable transactions (usually, an unverifiable transaction is one resulting from a redirect or a request for an image hosted on another site). If this is false, cookies are never blocked on the basis of verifiability

Netscape protocol strictness switches:

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_ns_unverifiable

Apply RFC 2965 rules on unverifiable transactions even to Netscape cookies.

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_ns_domain

Flags indicating how strict to be with domain-matching rules for Netscape cookies. See below for acceptable values.

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_ns_set_initial_dollar

Ignore cookies in Set-Cookie: headers that have names starting with '$' .

DefaultCookiePolicy. strict_ns_set_path

Don’t allow setting cookies whose path doesn’t path-match request URI.

strict_ns_domain is a collection of flags. Its value is constructed by or-ing together (for example, DomainStrictNoDots|DomainStrictNonDomain means both flags are set).

DefaultCookiePolicy. DomainStrictNoDots

When setting cookies, the ‘host prefix’ must not contain a dot (eg. www.foo.bar.com can’t set a cookie for .bar.com , because www.foo contains a dot).

DefaultCookiePolicy. DomainStrictNonDomain

Cookies that did not explicitly specify a domain cookie-attribute can only be returned to a domain equal to the domain that set the cookie (eg. spam.example.com won’t be returned cookies from example.com that had no domain cookie-attribute).

DefaultCookiePolicy. DomainRFC2965Match

When setting cookies, require a full RFC 2965 domain-match.

The following attributes are provided for convenience, and are the most useful combinations of the above flags:

DefaultCookiePolicy. DomainLiberal

Equivalent to 0 (ie. all of the above Netscape domain strictness flags switched off).

DefaultCookiePolicy. DomainStrict

相当于 DomainStrictNoDots|DomainStrictNonDomain .

范例

The first example shows the most common usage of http.cookiejar :

import http.cookiejar, urllib.request
cj = http.cookiejar.CookieJar()
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r = opener.open("http://example.com/")
								

This example illustrates how to open a URL using your Netscape, Mozilla, or Lynx cookies (assumes Unix/Netscape convention for location of the cookies file):

import os, http.cookiejar, urllib.request
cj = http.cookiejar.MozillaCookieJar()
cj.load(os.path.join(os.path.expanduser("~"), ".netscape", "cookies.txt"))
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r = opener.open("http://example.com/")
								

The next example illustrates the use of DefaultCookiePolicy . Turn on RFC 2965 cookies, be more strict about domains when setting and returning Netscape cookies, and block some domains from setting cookies or having them returned:

import urllib.request
from http.cookiejar import CookieJar, DefaultCookiePolicy
policy = DefaultCookiePolicy(
    rfc2965=True, strict_ns_domain=Policy.DomainStrict,
    blocked_domains=["ads.net", ".ads.net"])
cj = CookieJar(policy)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(urllib.request.HTTPCookieProcessor(cj))
r = opener.open("http://example.com/")