http.server— HTTP 服务器 ¶
此模块定义用于实现 HTTP 服务器 (Web 服务器) 的类。
def run(server_class=HTTPServer, handler_class=BaseHTTPRequestHandler): server_address = ('', 8000) httpd = server_class(server_address, handler_class) httpd.serve_forever()
HTTPServer( server_address , RequestHandlerClass ) ¶
This class builds on the
class by storing the server address as instance variables named
. The server is accessible by the handler, typically through the handler’s
ThreadingHTTPServer( server_address , RequestHandlerClass ) ¶
This class is identical to HTTPServer but uses threads to handle requests by using the
. This is useful to handle web browsers pre-opening sockets, on which
would wait indefinitely.
BaseHTTPRequestHandler( request , client_address , server ) ¶
This class is used to handle the HTTP requests that arrive at the server. By itself, it cannot respond to any actual HTTP requests; it must be subclassed to handle each request method (e.g. GET or POST).
provides a number of class and instance variables, and methods for use by subclasses.
The handler will parse the request and the headers, then call a method specific to the request type. The method name is constructed from the request. For example, for the request method
method will be called with no arguments. All of the relevant information is stored in instance variables of the handler. Subclasses should not need to override or extend the
Boolean that should be set before
returns, indicating if another request may be expected, or if the connection should be shut down.
Contains the string representation of the HTTP request line. The terminating CRLF is stripped. This attribute should be set by
. If no valid request line was processed, it should be set to the empty string.
Contains the command (request type). For example,
Contains the request path. If query component of the URL is present, then
includes the query. Using the terminology of
Contains the version string from the request. For example,
Holds an instance of the class specified by the
class variable. This instance parses and manages the headers in the HTTP request. The
is used to parse the headers and it requires that the HTTP request provide a valid
Contains the output stream for writing a response back to the client. Proper adherence to the HTTP protocol must be used when writing to this stream in order to achieve successful interoperation with HTTP clients.
has the following attributes:
Specifies the server software version. You may want to override this. The format is multiple whitespace-separated strings, where each string is of the form name[/version]. For example,
Specifies a format string that should be used by
method for building an error response to the client. The string is filled by default with variables from
based on the status code that passed to
Specifies the Content-Type HTTP header of error responses sent to the client. The default value is
This specifies the HTTP protocol version used in responses. If set to
, the server will permit HTTP persistent connections; however, your server
then include an accurate
) in all of its responses to clients. For backwards compatibility, the setting defaults to
-like class to parse HTTP headers. Typically, this is not overridden, and it defaults to
This attribute contains a mapping of error code integers to two-element tuples containing a short and long message. For example,
is usually used as the
key in an error response, and
key. It is used by
handle( ) ¶
once (or, if persistent connections are enabled, multiple times) to handle incoming HTTP requests. You should never need to override it; instead, implement appropriate
handle_one_request( ) ¶
This method will parse and dispatch the request to the appropriate
method. You should never need to override it.
handle_expect_100( ) ¶
When a HTTP/1.1 compliant server receives an
request header it responds back with a
headers. This method can be overridden to raise an error if the server does not want the client to continue. For e.g. server can choose to send
as a response header and
send_error( code , message=None , explain=None ) ¶
Sends and logs a complete error reply to the client. The numeric
specifies the HTTP error code, with
as an optional, short, human readable description of the error. The
argument can be used to provide more detailed information about the error; it will be formatted using the
attribute and emitted, after a complete set of headers, as the response body. The
attribute holds the default values for
that will be used if no value is provided; for unknown codes the default value for both is the string
. The body will be empty if the method is HEAD or the response code is one of the following:
204 No Content
205 Reset Content
304 Not Modified
3.4 版改变： The error response includes a Content-Length header. Added the explain 自变量。
send_response( code , message=None ) ¶
Adds a response header to the headers buffer and logs the accepted request. The HTTP response line is written to the internal buffer, followed by
headers. The values for these two headers are picked up from the
methods, respectively. If the server does not intend to send any other headers using the
should be followed by an
Headers are stored to an internal buffer and
needs to be called explicitly.
send_header( keyword , value ) ¶
Adds the HTTP header to an internal buffer which will be written to the output stream when either
should specify the header keyword, with
specifying its value. Note that, after the send_header calls are done,
MUST BE called in order to complete the operation.
3.2 版改变： Headers are stored in an internal buffer.
send_response_only( code , message=None ) ¶
Sends the response header only, used for the purposes when
response is sent by the server to the client. The headers not buffered and sent directly the output stream.If the
is not specified, the HTTP message corresponding the response
end_headers( ) ¶
Adds a blank line (indicating the end of the HTTP headers in the response) to the headers buffer and calls
3.2 版改变： The buffered headers are written to the output stream.
flush_headers( ) ¶
Finally send the headers to the output stream and flush the internal headers buffer.
log_request( code='-' , size='-' ) ¶
Logs an accepted (successful) request. code should specify the numeric HTTP code associated with the response. If a size of the response is available, then it should be passed as the size 参数。
log_error( ... ) ¶
Logs an error when a request cannot be fulfilled. By default, it passes the message to
, so it takes the same arguments (
and additional values).
log_message( format , ... ) ¶
Logs an arbitrary message to
. This is typically overridden to create custom error logging mechanisms. The
argument is a standard printf-style format string, where the additional arguments to
are applied as inputs to the formatting. The client ip address and current date and time are prefixed to every message logged.
version_string( ) ¶
date_time_string( timestamp=None ) ¶
Returns the date and time given by
(which must be
or in the format returned by
), formatted for a message header. If
is omitted, it uses the current date and time.
The result looks like
'Sun, 06 Nov 1994 08:49:37 GMT'
log_date_time_string( ) ¶
Returns the current date and time, formatted for logging.
address_string( ) ¶
Returns the client address.
3.3 版改变： Previously, a name lookup was performed. To avoid name resolution delays, it now always returns the IP address.
SimpleHTTPRequestHandler( request , client_address , server , directory=None ) ¶
This class serves files from the directory directory and below, or the current directory if directory is not provided, directly mapping the directory structure to HTTP requests.
3.7 版新增： directory 参数。
3.9 版改变： directory parameter accepts a 像路径对象 .
The following are defined as class-level attributes of
This will be
"SimpleHTTP/" + __version__
is defined at the module level.
A dictionary mapping suffixes into MIME types, contains custom overrides for the default system mappings. The mapping is used case-insensitively, and so should contain only lower-cased keys.
3.9 版改变： This dictionary is no longer filled with the default system mappings, but only contains overrides.
class defines the following methods:
do_HEAD( ) ¶
This method serves the
request type: it sends the headers it would send for the equivalent
request. See the
method for a more complete explanation of the possible headers.
do_GET( ) ¶
The request is mapped to a local file by interpreting the request as a path relative to the current working directory.
If the request was mapped to a directory, the directory is checked for a file named
(in that order). If found, the file’s contents are returned; otherwise a directory listing is generated by calling the
method. This method uses
to scan the directory, and returns a
error response if the
If the request was mapped to a file, it is opened. Any
exception in opening the requested file is mapped to a
'File not found'
error. If there was a
header in the request, and the file was not modified after this time, a
response is sent. Otherwise, the content type is guessed by calling the
method, which in turn uses the
variable, and the file contents are returned.
header with the guessed content type is output, followed by a
header with the file’s size and a
header with the file’s modification time.
Then follows a blank line signifying the end of the headers, and then the contents of the file are output. If the file’s MIME type starts with
the file is opened in text mode; otherwise binary mode is used.
Support of the
class can be used in the following manner in order to create a very basic webserver serving files relative to the current directory:
import http.server import socketserver PORT = 8000 Handler = http.server.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler with socketserver.TCPServer(("", PORT), Handler) as httpd: print("serving at port", PORT) httpd.serve_forever()
python -m http.server 8000
By default, server binds itself to all interfaces. The option
specifies a specific address to which it should bind. Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are supported. For example, the following command causes the server to bind to localhost only:
python -m http.server 8000 --bind 127.0.0.1
argument was introduced.
argument enhanced to support IPv6
By default, server uses the current directory. The option
specifies a directory to which it should serve the files. For example, the following command uses a specific directory:
python -m http.server --directory /tmp/
specify alternate directory
CGIHTTPRequestHandler( request , client_address , server ) ¶
This class is used to serve either files or output of CGI scripts from the current directory and below. Note that mapping HTTP hierarchic structure to local directory structure is exactly as in
CGI scripts run by the
class cannot execute redirects (HTTP code 302), because code 200 (script output follows) is sent prior to execution of the CGI script. This pre-empts the status code.
The class will however, run the CGI script, instead of serving it as a file, if it guesses it to be a CGI script. Only directory-based CGI are used — the other common server configuration is to treat special extensions as denoting CGI scripts.
functions are modified to run CGI scripts and serve the output, instead of serving files, if the request leads to somewhere below the
defines the following data member:
This defaults to
and describes directories to treat as containing CGI scripts.
defines the following method:
do_POST( ) ¶
This method serves the
request type, only allowed for CGI scripts. Error 501, “Can only POST to CGI scripts”, is output when trying to POST to a non-CGI url.
Note that CGI scripts will be run with UID of user nobody, for security reasons. Problems with the CGI script will be translated to error 403.
can be enabled in the command line by passing the
python -m http.server --cgi 8000